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Fluid Mechanics For Civil Engineers

Category: Engineering

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CVE 303: Fluid Mechanics (2, 0, 1) 3 Units

Types of fluid flow. Fluid statics: Floatation and stability. Dynamics of fluid flow - conservation equation of mass and momentum. Euler and Bernoulli’s equations. Introduction to incompressible viscous flow. Application of Bernoulli’s equation to fluid measurement, pitot tubes, orifices, nozzles, venturi meters, weirs, notches and rate meter.

Types of machines, impulse and reaction turbines; Pelton wheels; Francis Turbines. Unit speed, unit discharge, unit power performance characteristics of pumps and turbines. Specific speed multi-stage pumps. pumping and piping.

Dimensional analysis using Buckingham Pi theorems. Potential viscous flow and shear forces in pipes and between parallel plates.

Reynolds number, laminar and turbulent velocity distribution, laminar flow between parallel plates and through circular tubes, boundary layers and separation. Drag and lift. Flow in single pipes. Unsteady flow in pipes with special emphasis on water hammer and use of surge tanks. Wall friction. Minor pipe losses. Equation for radial pressure variation. Radial flow. Free vortex flow. Forced vortex flow. Secondary flow in beds.

Laboratory practicals on flow measurements. Flow meters and errors in measurement

Measurements of liquid levels, hydrostatic force on submerged surface, head discharge relationship for rectangular and vee notches, metacentric height, Bernoulli’s theorem, pipe friction, losses in pipes, water hammer, fluid measurement using pitot tubes, orifices, nozzles, venturi meters, weirs, notches and rate meter. Calibration of orifice meter. Determination of coefficient of contraction Cc, Coefficient of velocity Cv and coefficient of discharge Cd for flow through a circular/round orifice.

Measurement of pressure head in a pipeline by means of piezometer tube, U-tube and inverted tube.  Determination of meter center and metacentric height of a ship.

Reynolds experiment: Determination of Reynolds numbers at different flood rates in laminar/ turbulent flow phenomena,

Determination of unsteady flow in surge chambers, to conduct model studies in a wind tunnel.


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